The project is achieving its goal by solving problems and organizing events. The goal may be different: the creation of a product, the provision of a service, the achievement of a result. The project is limited in resources and time. It requires management throughout the life cycle.
Management is a process of balancing resources to achieve the goal in the most profitable way. Planning is based on the idea that the project goes through successive stages. Different approaches allocate from 3 to 5 control stages. The compilation of knowledge on project management notes that the number of stages is individual and is determined by the team.
Consider the organization of the project by dividing it into 5 steps.
1. Initiation phase.
Initiation is the moment of inception of the project.
The phase consists of two parts:
- 1.Decision to start
- 2.Preparing for launch
Technical and economic studies are carried out, the results of which will show what to calculate at the start. Participants decide on the possibility of implementing tasks using company resources.
At the stage of initiation occurs:
- Defining goals and objectives
- Appointment of a manager
- Development of the charter
- Identification of participants and stakeholders
- Project Description
- Providing information to interested parties. Interested parties: sponsors, customers, managers.
- Determination of the expected result
- The listed actions specify information about the project.
2. Planning phase.
Develop a common management plan based on other plans.
What is done?
- evaluation of time spent on operations
- assessment of the financial costs of the work
- choice of ways to communicate with stakeholders
- budget planning
- elaboration of goals, objectives
- preparation of the general plan
The stage includes the creation of a structural work decomposition (Work Breakdown Structure). This is a breakdown of the project into parts according to a specific attribute (function, product, stage of the life cycle).
A Gantt chart is created, this is a calendar plan in the form of a bar chart, which is used to build a work schedule.
A risk management plan is being developed that includes:
– identification of risks and their analysis;
– risk reduction approaches;
– planning risk response.
3. Performance phase.
The implementation of the project according to the plan.
The stage includes:
- organization of workers interaction
- ensuring an adequate level of quality work
- team development
- information flow between project participants
4. Monitoring and management phase.
In parallel with the implementation phase, the project’s progress is measured:
- The compliance of the work performed with the planned resources and risks is checked.
- Determination of the degree of deviation of time, material and human resources.
Monitoring allows you to quickly respond to deviations from the plan or mark compliance with the plan. The main goal is to correct deviations from the plan during the project.
5. Closure phase.
The last stage of the project life cycle includes the following tasks:
- providing the product to the customer
- release of resources
- team members reward
- termination of work with contractors
- preparation of implementation report
- problem and error analysis
- preparation of conclusions
The project has brought results and can be completed.
Planning and structuring the project does not get confused in a large number of tasks. When implementing the plan, it is necessary to proceed to the next stage only after the completion of the previous one.
Reasonable and consistent task execution is key to a successful project.